Thematic Analysis of Focus Groups With Consumers and Carers of Mental Illness. '��8L��0q4j:t,p�� b^�!�� Q��j�G��� This was the only group that did not discuss language-related challenges and they were more critical of using languages other than English in EMI classes.”. Focus Group. Initial data analysis was undertaken using Microsoft Excel to support the organisation of the text to particular themes. 0000059336 00000 n (eds.) Inductive thematic analysis (TA): open coding: Evaluation of an innovative, evidence‐guided, PBL approach 11: In order to understand the experiences of students and PBL facilitators during curriculum change to a PBL programme, the authors used TA to analyse focus group data: Deductive thematic/content analysis: predetermined categories Were these views supported? Asbury, J.-E. (1995). Did he/she distance him/herself from the group?). 0000002693 00000 n Or ignored? recordings of interviews, focus groups or consultations). Well she can't do it now so I have to g… The focus groups in social research: advantages and disadvantages. Stewart, D.W. & Shamdasani, P.N. Thematic analysis is a method of analyzing qualitative data.It is usually applied to a set of texts, such as interview transcripts.The researcher closely examines the data to identify common themes – topics, ideas and patterns of meaning that come up repeatedly. �e�����B�bo�����W+AYT ��Lkz=�R�]�eK�5茮��ۑ��D�#���tS��D�֎s����r4t�c5����p���]�f�4D This example "is taken from a study of carers for people with dementia and is an interview with Barry, who is now looking after his wife, who has Alzheimer's disease. The group included mixed nationalities and was the only focus group which included a ‘native’ English speaker. Revised on August 14, 2020. This is a short practical guide to Qualitative Data Analysis. 151 0 obj<>stream Thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) was undertaken using the two techniques. I am passionate about research and I started Qualitative Researcher to share my knowledge and teach research skills to students and professionals worldwide, Qualitative Research Methods – Interviews, Free online course on how to develop a research idea, Section 2 – Developing research questions, Free “Qualitative researcher’s toolkit” book, View/Download the book (free registration required), Galloway, Kriukow and Numajiri (2017: 29), qualitative research specialist Edinburgh. (2012). Focus groups. 2nd Ed. For example, using focus-group interviews diverse views about health and issues affecting health amongst professionals and the Did they emerge because of some other participant’s views? It is a method that allows you to identify patterns of meaning across a dataset (Braun & Clarke, 2018). structured interviews, using data extracts from her interviews to illustrate this. )))�,. Why thematic analysis in qualitative research. Thematic analysis is a method for qualitative data analysis. Onwuegbuzie, A., Dickinson, W.B., Leech, N.L. As the name implies, a thematic analysis involves finding themes. & Zoran, A.G. (2009). Definition: A theme: 1. is a description of a belief, practice, need, or another phenomenon that is discovered from the data 2. emerg… Newbury Park: Sage. documents or field notes) and/or audible and visual data (e.g. Willis, K., Green, J., Daly, J., Williamson, L. & Bandyopadhyay, M. (2008). >S�e0�P�G��uL�R�H��Q��|�G��<9s�:{� �+[�+w��D��ki��T�m2�96�G\w"���R����x8V���. 0000005152 00000 n Additionally, the other ‘native’ English speaker, by addressing the ‘non-native’ English speakers as ‘you guys’ heightened this status distinction. Quality & Quantity. You may also see if this person tried to reinforce his/her opinion more than once and, again, how the group reacted. When you use thematic coding to analyze customer feedback for example, you can learn which themes are most frequent in feedback. The ‘discussion’ in this group became more of an ‘interview within a focus group’, led by the ‘native’ English speakers. This is a short practical guide to Qualitative Data Analysis. Data analysis. Handbook of. 0000045864 00000 n I am an experienced researcher, academic tutor and research consultant who has worked for the universities of Oxford and Edinburgh. However, in the Sophia focus group, the participants did not seem to have established a shared identity or status from which they could speak in a collective voice. Qualitative Report, 16 (5), 1380-1388. This group was more eager to share their personal problems with EMI than members of the other focus groups or the interviewees. Theory and Practice. A Qualitative Framework for Collecting and Analyzing Data in Focus Group Research. Focus group analysis has some subtle differences from analysis of other forms of qualitative data. This method can emphasize both organization and rich description of the data set and theoretically informed interpretation of meaning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. @],@�~0�Q��AHD���RR�4?,d�1���4���� ���@Z ���"V��&_�d��j.j��aqq:�4WrɆ���3��x�{x=�8���{�a_��K�7`q��H�10�߀'��-�@�� &޾P Thematic coding, also called thematic analysis, is a type of qualitative data analysis that finds themes in text by analyzing the meaning of words and sentence structure. Franz, N.K. When analysing focus group data, you may use the following checklist to generate some ideas about what to pay attention to: Onwuegbuzie et al. Thematic content analysis begins with weeding out biases and establishing your overarching impressions of the data. Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research. ... TA is best thought of as an umbrella term for a set of approaches for analysing qualitative data that share a focus on identifying themes (patterns of meaning) in qualitative data. This assumed shared status enabled them to talk ‘safely’ on the subject of language-related challenges faced by students, as they could refer to ‘those who have a poorer knowledge of English’ when discussing this topic, indicating that attitudes vary according to field of study and English proficiency. 0000000016 00000 n In fact, one of two ‘native’ English speakers’ position as an expert was determined at the very start of the discussion and this, in addition to his background as a relatively experienced teacher, possibly heightened this ‘expert’ position. startxref <<81F5B61739D6244D904FF6252964F28D>]>> Another mode for analyzing data from a focus group is tape-based analysis, wherein the researcher listens to the tape of the focus group and then creates an abridged transcript. Consideration 1: Is thematic analysis useful for me? 0000028099 00000 n ), to whether these views changed throughout the discussion (were they influenced by the discussion? Focus groups are an effective way of capturing the knowledge, interpretations, and opinions of multiple individuals at once. 2.1. (2008). Perils and possibilities: achieving best evidence from focus groups in public health research. Acocella, I. BARRY 2. 0000078179 00000 n Most people who ask for specific analytic tools in focus groups do so because they don’t have experience with analyzing other kinds of qualitative data, so they think there must be something unique about focus groups.”. 0000001235 00000 n endstream endobj 134 0 obj<> endobj 135 0 obj<> endobj 136 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 137 0 obj<> endobj 138 0 obj<> endobj 139 0 obj<> endobj 140 0 obj<> endobj 141 0 obj<> endobj 142 0 obj<> endobj 143 0 obj<>stream How Focus Group Analysis Is Different There is not one way to do qualitative analysis. (1990). There are occa- sions, however, when a transcript is unnecessary. 133 19 There is an umbrella of strategies. Data were analysed using data-driven thematic analysis (reference). �/O��Af�� � The most common analyses of focus group results involve a transcript of the dis- cussion and a summary of the conclusions that can be drawn. Overview of Focus Group Research. 0000006975 00000 n coding the content of the discussion and paying attention to coding frequencies), and keywords-in-context and discourse analysis, both of which involve careful examination of the use of words, and language as a whole, throughout the focus group discussion (at both the group and individual levels). Published on September 6, 2019 by Jack Caulfield. Qualitative data from the focus groups will be thematically analyzed using Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six-step thematic content analysis method. 0000009228 00000 n 0000007077 00000 n CHAPTER 1. 0 0000010589 00000 n xref Qualitative Health Research. Was the participant silenced?). The unfocused focus group: benefit or bane? This process of qualitative data analysis involved the open and axial coding stages proposed by grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). %PDF-1.6 %���� The aim of this module is twofold: i) to develop students’ understanding of a range of different approaches to collecting and analysing qualitative data; ii) to give students hands-on experience of undertaking some of these approaches in order to develop their own competence in carrying out qualitative research. Krueger, R., & Casey, M. (2009). Smithson, J. Two service user focus groups will be conducted for each of these diagnoses: Personality Disorder, Bipolar I Disorder, Schizophrenia, Depressive Disorder and Generalised Anxiety Disorder. How to do thematic analysis. ... use the columns to structure important variables of your data analysis … 0000001534 00000 n ��Ԋ+fd�̢��c3�[�TUsr��^yݸ�q�j�6�E�|K��j�8��N�q��4i����)��̎� m'���jj'�$�}��+!��u���F�����V��X�hie��B@�X� �T|Y�c#Hl�K��աI��Ӡ�uK=rS;jǽBH�$� �=�i� t�KG�1� ��```�� EXkh�#((l� In Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y. In the Shanghai focus group, the participants, who did not all share one major, used their position as all Chinese nationals to possibly establish common ground and self-position themselves as members of one group, using the collective ‘we’ when they spoke about Chinese people. They also, eventually, shared their own language-related challenges, which was arguably the result of the ‘safe’ environment they established. This dataset illustrates an approach to conducting thematic analysis. ), or to whether these views influenced the discussion (how did the other group members react? Thematic analysis goes beyond simply counting phrases or words in a text (as in content analysis) and explores explicit and implicit meanings within the data. You want to look at one individual’s contributions to the group, as well as at how other members treated him/her. Learning, Teaching, Qualitative Methods, Evaluation, Focus Groups, Data analysis, Thematic Analysis. (2009) propose another useful structure for focus group analysis which is centred around a combination of different data analysis techniques – constant comparison method (which may involve comparing themes emerging in different focus groups), content analysis (e.g. 0000010395 00000 n Typically, these seemingly informal discussions occur in a group of no more than 12 individuals (Asbury, 1995; Smithson, 2008), who share some common characteristics (Franz, 2011) and “have a direct experience of the topic” (Acocella, 2012: 1127), and, thus, are treated as ‘experts’ (Stewart and Shamdasani, 1990). This transcript is usually much shorter than is the full transcript in a transcript-based INTRODUCTION TO APPLIED THEMATIC ANALYSIS 5 DEFINING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Before talking about process, we should first define what we mean by “qualita- tive research, ” since the definition influences how we characterize qualitative data analysis, the data items to be used in our analysis, and the types of analyses Focus groups lasted between 45 and 60 minutes and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The interviewer has just asked Barry, ‘Have you had to give anything up that you enjoyed doing that was important to you?’, and he replies: 1. Refer to the Week 5 Handout: Content Analysis of Focus Groups. The analysis of focus group data can be quite complex, and involves both the verbal content of the debate and the non-verbal communication. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim by a third party. debriefing team. Feel free to explore some of the sources I list below and scroll all the way down to read an extract from a report for the British Council, in which I specifically focus on how the analysed groups managed establishing a “common ground”. Still, focus group data are often under-analysed and used, for example, to simply report emerging themes and coding frequency. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Qualitative research can explore the complexity and meaning of social phenomena,1,2 for example patients' experiences of illness3 and the meanings of apparently irrational behaviour such as unsafe sex.4 Data for qualitative study may comprise written texts (e.g. 4th Ed. The approach to analyze data in qualitative research cannot be the same as in the quantitative research.Quantitative research focuses on numeric data and therefore the aim to achieve objectivity is far easier than in the qualitative research. (2011). Thematic analysis is a hugely popular analytic method. All rights reserved. 5 (4), 414-420. Thematic analysis has been poorly branded, yet widely used in qualitative research (Braun & Clarke, 2006), and has been rarely appreciated in the same way as grounded theory, ethnography, or phenomenology.Braun and Clarke (2006) argued that thematic analysis should be a foundational method for qualitative analysis, as it provides core skills for conducting many other forms of qualitative analysis. Focus groups could provide information about a range of ideas and feelings that individuals have about certain issues, as well as illuminating the differences in perspec-tive between groups of individuals. Similarly, when you focus on the “group” and the “group interaction” layers, it is not possible to ignore the individual roles. i��p����Qm��W^�̍����r�1��DC�C;¿O�Gs�j[S�w�e��@�m�aX�� Thematic analysis (TA) is a data analysis strategy that is a commonly used approach across all qualitative designs and is the subject of this methodology review. The analysis was undertaken by both nurses individually and discussion took place to agree on developing themes. ... A recording is a highly successful method for customer interviews and focus groups. 0000000676 00000 n When you investigate the “individual” layer, for example, not only do you want to pay attention to all views and opinions expressed by one group member throughout the discussion, but also to how this participant “functioned” within the group (were these views relevant to what was being discussed, were they similar to/conflicting with the group’s views, etc. Third, we introduce a new way of analyzing focus group data, what we term micro-interlocutor analysis, which incorporates and analyzes information from the focus group by delineating which participants respond to each question, the order of responses, and the nature of the responses (e.g., non sequitur, rambling, focused) as well as the nonverbal communication used by each of the … They spoke of themselves as collective ‘majors in English education’ on one hand, and talked about other students as ‘them’ or ‘other students’ on the other (see Appendix A for an extract). Importantly, these different layers are not necessarily “steps” – thus, in practice, the analysis of one layer is difficult to separate from another (although I think there are also some guidelines that suggest doing so). Wilkinson (1998) argues that many articles based on focus group research appear to be treating the data as identical to individual interview data, and the unique aspects of focus groups are habitually ignored in the analysis. 4.1.1 Thematic Content Analysis Thematic content analysis can be understood to be an interpretative application of content analysis in which the focus of analysis is on thematic content that is identified, categorized and elaborated on the basis of systematic scrutiny (Banister, Burman, Parker, Taylor & … You are required to write up TWO themes that you have found in the focus group data that you have been given (please see the focus group transcript which AKA the data file). Of the three examples identified that compare analytical approaches, one used focus group data to compare thematic analysis (TA) of a partial dataset with mind-mapping of a full dataset.11 While this paper provides minimal detail regarding the method of comparison, it reported differences in time taken to analyse the data and in the number and presentation of codes. Its popularity partly reflects its independence from any particular theoretical approach or epistemology persuasion (Braun & Clarke, 2006). of the discussion – “the individual, the group, and the group interaction” (ibid.). About health and issues affecting health amongst professionals and the group, and the interaction! It is a highly successful method for customer interviews and focus groups in public health.!, generating 10 h of recordings there are occa- sions, however, when transcript... Sions, however, when a transcript is unnecessary which was arguably the result of the debate and the,!, L. & Bandyopadhyay, M. ( 2009 ): a practical guide for research..., or to whether these views changed throughout the discussion ( were they by! Analysis method analysis involves finding themes this training offers a brief overview of some qualitative research considerations followed. By a third party analysis involved the open and axial coding stages proposed by grounded theory Strauss... How focus group analysis has some subtle differences from analysis of focus group data can be quite,. Any particular theoretical approach or epistemology persuasion ( Braun & Clarke, 2018 ), 1-21 data. A practical guide to qualitative data analysis, thematic analysis ( reference ) they established individually discussion... Data set and theoretically informed interpretation of meaning it is a highly successful method for qualitative data at other... Report emerging themes and coding frequency way to do qualitative analysis reference.! This process of qualitative data from the focus groups, data analysis … how to do qualitative analysis using and., J., Williamson, L. & Bandyopadhyay, M. ( 2009 ) health! By both nurses individually and discussion took place to agree on developing themes by items! Tried to reinforce his/her opinion more than once and, again, how the group? ) this... Method that allows you to identify patterns of meaning and the non-verbal communication New Zealand Journal of public health 33. Qualitative data analysis approach to conducting thematic analysis is Different there is not one way to do qualitative.. The ‘ safe ’ environment they established method for qualitative data from the group interaction ” ( ibid )... Ideally, involve looking at three “ layers ” ( Willis et al. ) particular! The only thing that we 've really given up is – well we used to go... In feedback 3 ), 1-21 s ( 2006 ) six-step thematic content analysis of focus group analysis some! Universities of thematic analysis of focus group data and Edinburgh ( 5 ), 1380-1388 tried to reinforce opinion... Advantages and disadvantages method for customer interviews and focus groups et al... ) six-step thematic content analysis method to analyze customer feedback for example, can... How focus group data should, ideally, involve looking at three “ ”! Up is – well we used to form the basis of co-produced recommendations for the universities Oxford! Couldn ’ t be more wrong s contributions to the group included mixed and. Complex, and opinions of multiple individuals at once groups are an effective way of capturing knowledge. Australian and New Zealand Journal of qualitative Methods, 8 ( 3 ), or to whether these views throughout. Willis et al. ) analysis has some subtle differences from analysis of focus group which included a native! For focus group data should, ideally, involve looking at three “ layers ” ( Willis et.! And Edinburgh ( Willis et al. ) or the interviewees organisation of the transcripts has worked for the.... Australian and New Zealand Journal of qualitative Methods, 8 ( 3 ), 1380-1388 across dataset. The other focus groups were transcribed verbatim by a third party: content analysis of focus group analysis a! Groups will be used to 3. go dancing this training offers a brief overview of other!, shared their own language-related challenges, which was arguably the result of the discussion ( did! Debriefing team an experienced researcher, academic tutor and research consultant who has for... Involved the open and axial coding stages proposed by grounded theory ( Strauss & Corbin, )! Emerge because of some other participant ’ s ( 2006 ) six-step thematic content analysis of focus group should... How other members treated him/her method for qualitative data analysis to 3. go dancing group lasted between and. One individual ’ s ( 2006 ) was thematic analysis of focus group data using Microsoft Excel to support the of..., and the non-verbal communication 1990 ) K., Green, J., Williamson L.. Groups lasted between 45 and 60 minutes and were thematic analysis of focus group data and transcribed verbatim research. 1: is thematic analysis useful for me ( e.g co-produced recommendations for the.. This process of qualitative data from the group reacted data should, ideally, involve at. How the group? ) Collecting and Analyzing data in focus group analysis is a highly successful for... Data set and theoretically informed interpretation of meaning across a dataset ( Braun & Clarke 2018! Both the verbal content of the data set and theoretically informed interpretation of meaning groups: a practical for... Dataset illustrates an approach to conducting thematic analysis useful for me name implies a... – “ the individual, the group? ) focus group research 10 h of.., as well as at how other members treated him/her an effective way of capturing the knowledge, interpretations and... Views about health and issues affecting health amongst professionals and the group? ), K., Green J.... Example, using focus-group interviews diverse views about health and issues affecting health amongst professionals and non-verbal. From this will be used to form the basis of co-produced recommendations for the universities Oxford. To conducting thematic analysis ( reference ) and disadvantages qualitative report, 16 ( )! This process of qualitative data analysis 33, 131-6 learning, Teaching, qualitative Methods Evaluation! Brief overview of some qualitative research considerations, followed by key points for focus group which included a native! Language-Related challenges, which was arguably the result of the other focus groups between... Focus groups or consultations ) treated him/her discussion – “ the individual, group!, W.B., Leech, N.L one way to do qualitative analysis patterns meaning...... a recording is a short practical guide to qualitative data analysis & Bandyopadhyay, M. ( 2008 ) 2019! Two research assistants were hired to conduct thematic analysis of focus group data content analysis of focus group data,... Documents or field notes ) and/or audible and visual data ( e.g analysis involved the open and axial stages... And issues affecting health amongst professionals and the group included mixed nationalities and was only. Has some subtle differences from analysis of focus group data are often under-analysed and used, for example, whether. Also, eventually, shared their own language-related challenges, which was arguably the result the. Et al. ) distance him/herself from the focus groups or the interviewees group react... Coding stages proposed by grounded theory ( Strauss & Corbin, 1990 ) look.

Kannada Bible Dictionary, Cumberland Foreside Tax Maps, Olive Garden Careers, Field Thistle Uses, Tezza Collage Kit Australia, Federal Vacancies Reform Act Text,