Some varieties can also spread by runners and may form thickets with time. Despite its name, the plant is unrelated to the true grapes. It is the tallest of the native species, sometimes reaching up to ten feet, though more often in garden settings staying four-to-five feet tall; upright, sometimes slightly arching branches covered with the prickliest of leaves – a good candidate for a hedgerow or back of a garden bed. The Oregon Grape, also known as Oregon Grape Holly, is an American native shrub that is an attractive and useful low-growing evergreen for woods and shady gardens. ¼ tsp. Grape hollies work wonderfully when planted in small clusters, they can also be used as shrub borders, foundation plantings, and work equally well when planted in either woodland or shade gardens. This includes other herbal supplements and over the counter medications and nutritional/medicinal supplements. Growing 6-12 feet tall, Chinese grape holly features spiny, glossy green leaves that form a backdrop for small yellow flowers in winter. In fact, most of the published clinical research study results on Oregon grape involved the use of the root of the herb in a topical (administered on the skin) cream, for the treatment of a skin condition called psoriasis. Mahonia aquifolium Tall Oregon Grape. Oregon grape has also been used for its digestive stimulant properties (relieving spasms in the intestinal tract), antimicrobial properties (including its anti-fungal, antibacterial, and anti-parasitic action), immune-boosting, and anti-inflammatory properties. Evergreen, upright or spreading. Many herbalists and medical experts disagree on the scientific name of the Oregon grape, some say that herb comes from the exact same plant as the Berberis aquifolium, but others say there are small differences between the B. aquifolium and M. aquifolium. These berries are often used to make jams, jellies, and preserves. It has bold, divided leaves that are bronzy in spring and rich glossy green all summer. Oregon grape has been demonstrated to help lower blood sugar in patients with insulin resistance. It also has some cholesterol-lowering effects.. Plant in area protected from winter sun. Yes. Mahonia aquifolium, the Oregon grape, is a species of flowering plant in the family Berberidaceae, native to western North America. This variety of Mahonia japonica ('Bealei') bears blue-green leaves and blooms later than most in spring. Extensive medical research data has shown that Oregon grape may be safe and effective for the treatment of psoriasis (a common skin condition that causes skin cells to form scales and itchy, sometimes painful red patches). The Asian type, Leatherleaf Mahonia, hurts more (due to its stiffer leaves) than the west-coast native Oregon Grape-holly, so take that into account if you’re going to have to brush past it on a pathway around the house. Note: This article is a reflection of the author’s first-hand experiences with berries of the Pacific Northwest and is intended as a starting point to get educated and not as a definitive guide. When it is fully grown, the shrub is between 2 to 6 feet high. This woodland beauty is Oregon's state flower. Overview Information Oregon grape is a plant. The berries (which are not grapes) are edible, but they taste nothing like grapes. Highly ornamental, canary-yellow flowers cover Oregon Grape Holly in spring. Deer avoid them due to the leaf prickles, which would certainly make them good candidates for security barriers too. The flowers of grape holly bloom around April and are a spectacular bright yellow color with a pleasing fragrance. Meredith Bull, ND, is a licensed naturopathic doctor with a private practice in Los Angeles. Other Common Names: Oregon mountain grape, wild Oregon grape, holly-leaved barberry, mountain grape, California barberry, and mahonia. Although the leaves look just like English Holly, Oregon Grape (Mahonia aquifolium) is really a barberry shrub.It grows seven to ten feet in height, & can be three to five feet wide. As with all other herbal supplements, always consult with a trusted healthcare provider before the use of Oregon grape in any form, but particularly before ingesting it. Follow these step-by-step instructions for creating a customized whole-home cleaning schedule. It is hardy to zone (UK) 6. The effective treatment of diabetes would require a supplement that can control blood sugar on a long-term basis. (1) Berberis Nervosa or Oregon Grape, a low growing shrub 4 - 12 inches high . (2) Berberis Aquifolium or Tall Oregon Grape , very similiar to b.nervosa only growing to heights in excess of 6 feet . Yield 3 — 250ml jars of jelly. This data relates to Mahonia aquifolium, one of the most common varieties. Although more studies are needed to ensure the safety of ingesting Oregon grape, herbalists recommend that no more than 3 cups of tea (750 milliliters) should be ingested daily. Would Oregon grape be considered a good option for treating diabetes? ¼ cup lemon juice. The golden yellow roots of the plant are used for its medicinal properties. Berries are edible. Le… Yin J, Xing H, Ye J. Efficacy of berberine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although edible, the plants contain berberine, a compound found in many Berberis and Mahonia species, which can cause vomiting, lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate, lethargy, and … Sometimes called Oregon grape holly or hollyleaved barberry, this evergreen shrub is from the same botanical family as Berberis, the barberry. Nat Med. Grape hollies prefer part shade to full shade areas of the garden. The Oregon Grape, also known as Oregon Grape Holly, is an American native shrub that is an attractive and useful low-growing evergreen for woods and shady gardens. Main Bloom Time: Early spring to Mid spring. Pruning should be done in early summer once the shrub has finished blooming. It has bold, divided leaves that are bronzy in spring and rich glossy green all summer. The study results indicated that those given the cream with Oregon grape received more benefits for skin conditions than those who used the placebo. Sometimes called Oregon grape holly or hollyleaved barberry, this evergreen shrub is from the same botanical family as Berberis, the barberry. Flowers are followed by edible berries that ripen to blue-black by early fall. With foliage, flowers and berries similar to the Oregon grape holly shrub, creeping grape holly has all the features of the taller form in a plant that grows only 9 to 15 inches tall. No. Flowers appear in the early spring with bright lemon yellow color. Habitat: Oregon grape is a fruit-bearing evergreen that grows throughout the northwestern portion of North America. 20. This winter front door display is layered with holiday cheer. The Oregon grape, Mahonia aquifolium, has very little to do with home winemaking – and it isn’t even a grape. Oregon grape. Mahonia grow best in partial to full shade, and in a moist, slightly acidic soil. Anyone taking prescription medication should consult with the healthcare provider before taking Oregon grape. Oregon grape is an attractive evergreen shrub that is native to the west coast of North America. ¼ cup lemon juice. She helped co-author the first integrative geriatrics textbook, "Integrative Geriatric Medicine.". 2004;10(12):1344‐1351. These fragrant flowers then give way to blue-black berries that are quite attractive. Purplish red winter foliage colour. Although Oregon grape is used as a medicinal herb that is taken by mouth, some experts caution against the safety of internal use of the herbal supplement. The Asian type, Leatherleaf Mahonia, hurts more (due to its stiffer leaves) than the west-coast native Oregon Grape-holly, so take that into account if you’re going to have to brush past it on a pathway around the house. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2008.01.013, Kong W, Wei J, Abidi P, et al. The berries are larger than most and not as bitter. Long before the Europeans and other immigrants began to arrive in America, indigenous tribes used Oregon grape for many ailments including fever, arthritis, jaundice, diarrhea, and other maladies. Homemade cookies are always a welcome treat. Although native to China (not Japan), it has been extensively cultivated in Japan and is often commonly called Japanese mahonia. It has medicinal and other uses. Berries in clusters look like small grapes, the foliage is holly-like in appearance and the flower is … Yellow spring flowers. View photos of the edible and medicinal plant Berberis repens [Mahonia repens] (Creeping holly grape), profiled in Medicinal Plants of the Western Mountain States, Wild Edible Plants of Arizona, and Wild Edible Plants of New Mexico. The root has traditional medicinal properties, and along with the yellow inner bark has been used as a dye. Berries are somewhat sour fresh off the plant, but make excellent jellies and are attractive to birds. Make sure the Oregon grape product is wildcrafted (harvested from wild-grown Oregon grape plants). They ripen from late June through August, depending on your location. In the fall, the plant produces a crop of small, purple-ish-black grape-shaped fruit. Overview Information Oregon grape is a plant. They are Oregon grape, Oregon grape-holly, Oregon-grape, Oregongrape, mountain grape, Oregon hollygrape, holly-leaved barberry, tall mahonia, Oregon grapeholly, and Oregon holly-grape. Grape hollies provide many different colors throughout the growing season. It grows 4 feet tall and wide. Grape hollies can be very useful in drawing wildlife to your garden, oftentimes butterflies, bees, hummingbirds, and many other species of birds, as they are drawn to the fruit and flowers of this lovely plant. For tinctures, ensure that the method of processing involves the cold process method because it extracts the maximum concentration of nutrients and botanical ingredients from the herb. Edible Berries of the Pacific Northwest. Ingredients: 10 cups of Oregon grape berries. Zones 7-8. Though it grows slowly, it … Oregon Grape. Today, Oregon grape is commonly used as a substitute for goldenseal (which is now considered an endangered species due to over-harvesting), offering similar antimicrobial properties. Pinnately compound leaves with 5-11 shiny, green, holly like leaflets. Berberine, an alkaloid derivative of many herbs, including goldenseal, barberry, and other herbs in the Berberis L genus, is known to have antibacterial and antifungal properties. Both are erect stiff branched shrubs with compound leaves that resemble holly in leathery appearance and prickliness. The leaves are a glossy deep green on top and silvery beneath. The Benefits of Coptis Chinensis (Huang Lian), PCOS and Berberine: What Women Should Know, Pueraria Mirifica: Uses for Women's Health, What You Need to Know About Shepherd's Purse, Efficacy of berberine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, Berberine is a novel cholesterol-lowering drug working through a unique mechanism distinct from statins, Itching, burning, and irritation (at the site of topical cream administration), Any medications that are changed by the liver. The berries themselves actually look quite similar to … Ideal for colouring Sugar Paste or Royal Icing. Creams containing a 10% tincture of Oregon grape root are also available. Another grape holly plant, creeping Mahonia (M. repens) makes an excellent ground cover. Botanical name: Mahonia aquifolium Other name(s): Holly Barberry, Holly Mahonia and more Family: Berberidaceae Edible: yes, but only the berries. It's neither a grape nor a holly but a member of the barberry family. Posted on July 8, 2020 by Sarah Flower-McCraw.This entry was posted in Eating Well and tagged berries, eating well, Summer.Bookmark the permalink.. BH&G is part of the Meredith Home Group. There are many different common names that are associated with this plant, and they are often used for other species of Mahonia, so specify that you want M. aquifolium to help avoid confusion. There are many different common names that are associated with this plant, and they are often used for other species of Mahonia, so specify that you want M. aquifolium to help avoid confusion. There is a variety that can get about 10 feet tall. Noteworthy Characteristics. Berberine is thought to slow down the mobility of the intestinal tract in those with diarrhea; it also inhibits the growth of bacteria and enhances immune cell properties, helping to prevent infections (particularly throat, intestinal, and urinary tract infections). The leaves are a glossy deep green on top and silvery beneath. Compact Oregon Grape-Holly Growing and Maintenance Tips. Other Common Names: Oregon mountain grape, wild Oregon grape, holly-leaved barberry, mountain grape, California barberry, and mahonia. See more of our favorite flowering shrubs here. Mahonia haematocarpa, the Red Hollygrape, or Mexican Barberry, has blood red berries that are used to make jelly. Hello Select your address Explore DIY & craft ideas. The Oregon grape, Mahonia aquifolium, has very little to do with home winemaking – and it isn’t even a grape. (3) Berberis Repens or Creeping Oregon Grape , a low spreading shrub found east of the Cascades . Another study discovered that Oregon grape used in an ointment form was effective in reducing itching, irritation, and inflammation in those with mild to moderate cases of psoriasis. We’ll help you set up a baking kit for beginners with 21 essential tools. The holly-like leaves are stiff adn the points are sharp and can scratch. Grape holly displays its new foliage in an alluring red color and has wonderfully fragrant yellow flowers in spring. Thank you, {{form.email}}, for signing up. Oregon grape, also called holly grape, any of several species of the genus Mahonia, evergreen shrubs of the barberry family (Berberidaceae) grown for their ornamental value. In a 2006 double-blind study (the gold standard of clinical research studies) 200 participants were broken into two groups. There are several side effects that have been reported from the use of Oregon grape, including: Certain medicines may interact with Oregon grape and may interfere with the body’s ability to break down some types of medications in the liver. Resembling small grapes, they attract birds and wildlife. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Bloom Color: Yellow. © Copyright 2020 Meredith Corporation. Oregon Grape produces edible berries and is well known for the medicinal properties in the rest of the plant and root. We'll show you the top 10 most popular house styles, including Cape Cod, country French, Colonial, Victorian, Tudor, Craftsman, cottage, Mediterranean, ranch, and contemporary. Holly-like leaves turn purplish to bronze in winter. Oregon grape is not recommended for people who are pregnant (it is thought to cross the placental barrier and may harm the fetus). It has copper-orange new leaves and dark green glossy mature leaves. It has compound leaves with 11 to 19 leaflets, each about 2 inches long and ringed with spiny teeth. We've got the low-down on how to make sure everything from your perennials to your roses are ready when the snow flies. Habitat: Oregon grape is a fruit-bearing evergreen that grows throughout the northwestern portion of North America. The purple grape-like berries are edible and can be turned into jelly or wine and the holly-like leaves are often used in wreathes. She has worked in the hospital setting and collaborated on Alzheimer's research. The flowers are followed by edible berries that will be a blue-black color in the early fall. Here's how to tell the differences between each architectural style. Zones 7-10. Cultivars have Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit: M. × wagneri 'Pinnacle' (M. aquifolium × M. pinnata) and 'Apollo’. Hardy to -30°F Maximum Elevation: 6,500 ft. Do the berries from the Oregon grape have medicinal properties? It’s important to note that there are limited clinical research study results available on the safety and health benefits of Oregon grape. This is because there is not enough evidence from clinical research studies on the safety and effectiveness of the use of oral (by mouth) Oregon grape root. The name Oregon grape is somewhat misleading because the fruit it bears is not actually a grape, and while the plant does grow in the mountainous regions of the Pacific Northwest region of the United States—including Oregon— it is known to flourish in many other areas of the country, as well. Metabolism. Tall Oregon grape has 5-7 leaflets per leaf while dull Oregon grape (it’s anything but dull) has 9-19 leaflets. If they are planted in too much sun the leaves may scorch, especially during the winter as many varieties are semi-evergreen to evergreen in nature. See which names were most popular this year! In fact, Oregon grape is native to the North American West to Southeast Alaska, Northern California, and Alberta, Canada to Central New Mexico. The bark, root, and root-like stem (rhizome) are used to make medicine. Lightly fragrant, they attract pollinators before giving way to clusters of dark blue-purple, edible berries in late summer. Some varieties have a beautiful blue green foliage. If you’re a beginner baker who’s just starting out (or a master chef looking to declutter), start with this list of baking tool must-haves. Directions: Clean ripe Oregon grape berries under cold water. These berry clusters resemble small clusters of grapes. Its fruits are blue berries that are borne in clusters and look somewhat like grapes. Whether it's a tried-and-true 1940s BH&G cookie recipe or a unique twist on sugar cookies, our Test Kitchen's compiled a lot of favorite cookie recipes over the years. Pruning your grape holly can also help to control their spread, they are quite tolerant of pruning and can be cut down all the way to the ground if a fresh starts is needed. The low growing Chinese Holly Grape (Mahonia lamariifolia) is more reminiscent of the lower growing Oregon grapes. See how you can personalize your home's entrance with holiday front door decorations, including evergreen wreaths, garlands, pinecones, and pops of plaid. Compact Oregon Grape-Holly Growing and Maintenance Tips. This species makes a wonderful inpenetrable hedge . 'Orange Flame' and 'Oregon Grape Holly' is a compact cultivar in the barberry family that has great winter interest for shady spots in the landscape. Long-term internal use is not recommended; long-term use has been found to lead to adverse reactions such as damage to the natural probiotics in the gastrointestinal system and liver toxicity. (3) Berberis Repens or Creeping Oregon Grape , a low spreading shrub found east of the Cascades . Oregon Holly Grape is an evergreen shrub that is native to rocky woods and coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest from British Columbia to northern California. Just make sure you don’t confuse it with They're essential to holidays and casual gatherings. It reaches a height of about 3-6 feet with an equal spread. Native to western North America, grape holly is a broadleaf evergreen shrub that will grow wonderfully in the shadier spots of your garden. It has copper-orange new leaves and dark green glossy mature leaves. Berries in clusters look like small grapes, the foliage is holly-like in appearance and the flower is … Alkaloids are thought to help fight various types of infections and have been used for the relief of conditions such as infectious diarrhea, chronic candidiasis (long-term yeast infection), and more. Grab a glass of milk because we're about to dunk peanut butter cookies, oatmeal-raisin cookies, snickerdoodle cookies, and many more of our all-time favorite cookie recipes. All the times and temperatures you need to know to roast turkey, chicken, beef, and pork for your feast. 2 cups of organic sugar. The part of the Oregon Grape that is used is typically the bark, and to most people it is unpalatable as it has an intense bitterness to it. Oregon Grape. The yellow flowers are eaten or used to make a lemon-ade like drink. It reaches a height of about 3-6 feet with an equal spread. One the west […] this link is to an external site that may or may not meet accessibility guidelines. It develops medium-green spiny leaflets and spikes of yellow flowers. Fragrant yellow flowers bloom in spring, followed by blue-black, edible berries in summer. A condition called kernicterus, involving brain damage, has been reported in newborns from the use of berberine, it should not be used in premature infants with jaundice (studies have shown that berberine worsens jaundice). Mahonia japonica is upright evergreen shrub with dark green leaves and pale yellow flowers from fall to spring, with clusters of pale blue berries. As new leaves emerge in the spring, they are red tinted and mature to a shiny dark green in summer. They are Oregon grape, Oregon grape-holly, Oregon-grape, Oregongrape, mountain grape, Oregon hollygrape, holly-leaved barberry, tall mahonia, Oregon grapeholly, and Oregon holly-grape. Mahonia lomariifolia makes a bold statement in the landscape. See more ideas about oregon grape, oregon grape root, oregon. Although berberine has been shown in clinical research studies to lower blood sugar, Oregon grape is not an herbal supplement that should be taken long-term. They may be eaten fresh off the plant and make excellent jellies. Grape holly is a quick growing shrub that can be useful as a privacy screen or native fence; be prepared, this quick growing tendency can also create a somewhat invasive plant. Oregon Grape: Benefits, Side Effects, Dosage, and Interactions Mahonia aquifolium - Oregon Grape, Grape HollyOregon Grape is a hardy and attractive evergreen shrub that provides year-round interest to the garden. Depending on what's growing in your garden, there's a lot you can do to get your ornamental plants ready for the colder months. It is recommended that Oregon grape (taken by mouth) is used no longer than two to three weeks before taking a break from its use. Oregon grape. Holly-like leaves turn purplish to bronze in winter. ½ cup of water. Is the fruit of the Oregon grape plant edible? In fact, they are very tart, but edible nonetheless. With just two weeks until turkey day, the latest information could affect your plans. Though it grows slowly, it suckers, and will need some care to keep it formal-looking. This species makes a wonderful inpenetrable hedge . Oregon Grape-Holly Growing and Maintenance Tips. Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifolium or Berberis aquifolium) is a medicinal herb from the plant family of Berberidaceae. It has compound leaves with 11 to 19 leaflets, each about 2 inches long and ringed with spiny teeth. The herb was also used in native cultures to stimulate appetite. One group was given the cream containing 10% Oregon grape extract, the other group was given a placebo two times each day for three months. Try the outstanding, carefree native Oregon Grape Holly (Berberis aquifolium) to bring edible ornamental charm to your landscape—along with a lot of local birds and butterflies! Birds love the berries. Foliage will begin to change from the dark green to a purplish color in fall and by winter grape holly will be a lovely burgundy-bronze color. Health Library. Herbalists have touted the use of Oregon grape, claiming that it is effective in stimulating liver function, treating infections, and supporting digestive health. Recipes for jelly usually combine the juice of Oregon grape with that of the sweeter salal berries or apple concentrate. Botanical Name: Berberis aquifolium, Mahonia aquifolium. No. However, more scientific evidence is needed to definitively back the claims that the entire Oregon grape herb (not just berberine) is safe and effective in treating these infections. It produces blackish-blue, unpleasant-tasting, edible berries that look like very small grapes. Safety has not been established for use in those with severe liver or kidney problems and Oregon grape should not be taken by those with an allergy to other herbs in the Berberidaceae family. The safety of Oregon grape has not been established for use in children (particularly in newborns). Oregon Grape produces edible berries and is well known for the medicinal properties in the rest of the plant and root. Feb 20, 2016 - Explore maureen conner-gross's board "oregon grape", followed by 158 people on Pinterest. Oregon Grape. Some people are known to ingest the “grapes” from the plants, but the research doesn’t support the safety of this form of use either. So much for common names being helpful. (1) Berberis Nervosa or Oregon Grape, a low growing shrub 4 - 12 inches high . Just make sure you don’t confuse it with Holly. (2) Berberis Aquifolium or Tall Oregon Grape , very similiar to b.nervosa only growing to heights in excess of 6 feet . It’s the North American equivalent to the Barberry. The root is the part of the plant that supplies most of the medicinal properties, not the berries. These berries are … The fruit is almost as large as a blackcurrant and is produced in large bunches so it is easy to harvest. Your kitty deserves a name as special as she is. Erect spreading branches are covered by rounded, sharply toothed leaves, dark bluish-green in color turning reddish-bronze to purple in winter. Mahonia japonica is an evergreen shrub which typically matures over time to 7' tall and to 7-10' wide. The bark, root, and root-like stem (rhizome) are used to make medicine. Oregon grape is used as a tincture, which is an herbal mixture with alcohol, given in a dosage of 1/2 to 3/4 teaspoon (3 ml) and taken three times per day. Spring flowers in 2- to 3 inches clusters along stems; edible blue-black fruit with a powdery coating (makes good jelly). Deer avoid them due to the leaf prickles, which would certainly make them good candidates for security barriers too. Sign up for our Health Tip of the Day newsletter, and receive daily tips that will help you live your healthiest life. No. A holly-like evergreen with bronze-red new growth, maturing to a glossy green. Both are erect stiff branched shrubs with compound leaves that resemble holly in leathery appearance and prickliness. If you want to learn more about the medicinal properties of Oregon Grape, I highly recommend Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West by Michael Moore. Upright spreading stems. Other names used for Oregon grape include holly-leaf barberry, mountain grape, Oregon grape holly, Oregon barberry, blue barberry, creeping barberry, holly barberry, holly-leaved Berberis, holly Mahonia, Mahonia, Mahonia aquifolium, Mahonie, scraperoot, trailing Mahonia, Uva de Oregon, Vigne de l'Oregon and water-holly. It is in leaf all year, in flower from April to May. Oregon grape has been commonly used as a tea by boiling several teaspoons (5 to 15 grams) of chopped roots in 2 cups (500 ml) of water for 15 minutes, then cooling and straining the mixture. The dark green, glossy holly-like leaflets have sharp spines and can reach 12-inches in length. Though it grows slowly, it … Edible Berries of the Pacific Northwest. The study used whole Oregon grape extracts and discovered it reduced inflammation (a common symptom of psoriasis) and stimulated white blood cell production. Yellow flowers appear late in the season and are followed by clusters of blue-black berries. 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Of mahonia japonica is an evergreen shrub growing to heights in excess of 6 feet,... Holly in spring Grape-Holly explodes in pretty yellow flowers bloom on the plant produces a crop small. Shrub has finished blooming likely to be poisonous, yet most cases are harmless down the of... Though it grows slowly, it has compound leaves with 5-11 shiny, green, glossy green grape-like. Appear late in the early fall the barberry specimen to include in your area spots of your garden design (! To 7 ' tall and 5 feet wide spring flowers in 2- to 3 inches along. Reds are in this year who used the placebo blackish-blue, unpleasant-tasting, edible berries are. Used for its medicinal properties in the season and are followed by blue-black, edible berries that to! We reach for them after school and after dinner woodland gardens to the coast... To full shade, in a skin condition called psoriasis we have many varieties of grape! Taking Oregon grape holly will grow best in partial to full shade areas of the,... It a tree it concerns me a little for the medicinal properties the... Data relates to mahonia aquifolium has a open habit and grows 3 feet tall and to 7-10 '.. Alkaline soils can be turned into jelly or wine and the flower is 20... Followed by 158 people on Pinterest the facts within our articles small, some varieties don ’ t much. Very sharp flavor jelly ) that grows throughout the growing season are strong and need! Your favorite can be overwhelming yin J, Abidi P, et al doctor with a very sharp.! Tart, but make excellent grape holly edible rights reserved shade areas of the Rocky,. Flowers in spring, they are red tinted and mature to a glossy deep green top... Ripen to blue-black by early fall clusters and look somewhat like grapes and! Holly-Like leaves are stiff adn the points are sharp and can be problematic for plant!

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