Create a list of the investments you want to track. Another study randomized 100 community-dwelling men and women aged 60 years and older (most were White) with serum 25(OH)D levels of 50 nmol/L (20 ng/ml) or less to 800 IU vitamin D3 or placebo for 1 year [86]. In one meta-analysis of 46 clinical trials that included 4,541 participants, vitamin D supplements (typically 40 mcg [1,600 IU]/day or less) for a minimum of 4 weeks had no significant effects on systolic or diastolic blood pressure [127]. [, Mheid IA, Quyyumi AA. One study comparing 738 men who developed pancreatic cancer to 738 matched controls found no relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and risk of pancreatic cancer [105]. Observational studies have linked lower serum 25(OH)D levels to an increased risk of diabetes, but their results might have been confounded by the fact that many participants were overweight or obese and were therefore more predisposed to developing diabetes and having lower 25(OH)D levels [1]. N Engl J Med 2006;354:669-82. Obes Rev 2014;15:528-37. Am J Clin Nutr 2019;110:1043-4. Nutrient composition of human milk. [, Vogiatzi MG, Jacobson-Dickman E, DeBoer MD. Vitamin D in foods: An evolution of knowledge. [, Taylor CL, Thomas PR, Aloia JF, Millard PS. Association of vitamin D status with arterial blood pressure and hypertension risk: A mendelian randomisation study. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2014. Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. [, Rafiq S, Jeppesen PB. [, Song Z-y, Yao Q, Zhuo Z, Ma Z, Chen G. Circulating vitamin D level and mortality in prostate cancer patients: A dose-response meta-analysis. [, Manson JE, Cook NR, Lee I-M, Christen W, Bassuk S, Mora S, et al. [, Lehmann U, Hirche F, Stangl GI, Hinz K, Westphal S, Dierkes J. Bioavailability of vitamin D2 and D3 in healthy volunteers, a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Hypercalcemia, in turn, can lead to nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, neuropsychiatric disturbances, pain, loss of appetite, dehydration, polyuria, excessive thirst, and kidney stones. Among the women with two or more serum 25(OH)D samples taken before diagnosis (which reduced random measurement variation), a 50 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D was associated with a 41% reduced risk of MS, and 25(OH)D levels less than 30 nmol/L were associated with an MS risk that was twice as high as levels of 50 nmol/L or higher. [, Xu Y, Shao X, Yao Y, Xu L, Chang L, Jiang Z, Lin Z. JAMA Oncol 2017;3:351-7. An investigation that pooled data from 10 studies of cancer in 12,205 men and women found that concentrations of 25(OH)D greater than 75 nmol/L (30 ng/mL) but less than 100 nmol/L (40 ng/mL) did not reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. [, Gotfredsen A, Westergren Hendel H, Andersen T. Influence of orlistat on bone turnover and body composition. Pediatrics 2003;112:e132-5. In addition, 26% of participants aged 2–5 years and 14% of those aged 6–11 years took supplements; rates increased with age from 10% of those aged 12–19 years to 49% of men and 59% of women aged 60 and older. Thiazide diuretics (e.g., Hygroton®, Lozol®, and Microzide®) decrease urinary calcium excretion. An analysis of NHANES 2011–2014 data on serum 25(OH)D levels found that most people in the United States aged 1 year and older had sufficient vitamin D intakes according to the FNB thresholds [44]. The trials administered different amounts of vitamin D (ranging from 10 mcg [400 IU]/day to 1,000 mcg [40,000 IU]/week). Effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum lipid profiles: A systematic review and meta-analysis. In addition, although 25(OH)D levels rise in response to increased vitamin D intake, the relationship is nonlinear [1]. Its name in English is dee , plural dees. Steroids Although 25(OH)D functions as a biomarker of exposure, the extent to which 25(OH)D levels also serve as a biomarker of effect on the body (i.e., relating to health status or outcomes) is not clear [1,3]. Ann Intern Med 2014;160:810-1. Brooks SPJ, Sempos CT. [, Weisberg P, Scanlon KS, Li R, Cogswell ME. Check back later However, higher serum 25(OH)D levels (at a cut point of 75 nmol/L [30 ng/mL]) were linked to a modestly higher risk of slow-growth prostate cancer and a more substantial lower risk of aggressive disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2019;110:150-7. Monthly high-dose vitamin D supplementation does not increase kidney stone risk or serum calcium: Results from a randomized controlled trial. Colorectal cancer Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2016;26:663-73. Copyright © 2020 MarketWatch, Inc. All rights reserved. Breastfed infants D is designed such that most "obvious" code is fast and safe. JAMA Cardiol 2017;2:608-16. Vitamin D, Volume 2: Health, Disease and Therapeutics, Fourth Edition. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2019;28:900-8. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:893-902. [, Perez-Castrillon JL, Vega G, Abad L, Sanz A, Chaves J, Hernandez G, Duenas A. Vitamin D might be involved in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes through its effects on glucose metabolism and insulin signaling as well as its ability to reduce inflammation and improve pancreatic beta-cell function [144,145]. [, Nair-Shalliker V, Bang A, Egger S, Clements M, Gardiner RA, Kricker A, et al. [, Sempos CT, Binkley N. 25-hydroxyvitamin D assay standardisation and vitamin D guidelines paralysis. Conclusions about vitamin D supplements and bone health These differences are a result of an incomplete understanding of the biology and clinical implications of vitamin D, different purposes for the guidelines (e.g., for public health in a healthy population or for clinical practice), and/or the use in some guidelines of observational studies in addition to randomized clinical trials to establish recommendations [9,15]. Use of vitamin D drops leading to kidney failure in a 54-year-old man. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.17789. Stay up to date on the latest stock price, chart, news, analysis, fundamentals, trading and investment tools. Older people and people with dark skin are less able to produce vitamin D from sunlight [1]. JAMA 2020;324:471-80. Neither aging nor obesity alters vitamin D absorption from the gut [4]. Vitamin D, calcium, or combined supplementation for the primary prevention of fractures in community-dwelling adults. The Gas Infrastructure segment comprises gas transmission and storage, gas distribution and storage, liquefied natural gas import, and storage. Lung cancer For many people, consuming vitamin D-fortified foods and exposing themselves to some sunlight are essential for maintaining a healthy vitamin D status. Excess amounts of vitamin D are toxic. Builds Back Better. J Natl Cancer Inst 2019;111:158-69. We encourage you to talk to your healthcare providers (doctor, registered dietitian, pharmacist, etc.) Though it originated as a re-engineering of C++, D is a distinct language. MS is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that damages the myelin sheath surrounding and protecting nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. Agios Stock Is Soaring Because of a Major Sale, Gold settles lower Monday as U.S. dollar regains some steam in early Christmas week trade, Bearish bets against Tesla’s stock fall to record low, says data provider, How Boris Johnson is navigating through the crisis over mutant COVID strain and travel ban, United Airlines issues fee waiver for travel to London. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2018;6:847-58. It is also needed for bone growth and bone remodeling by osteoblasts and osteoclasts [1-3]. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016;101:1647-55. In contrast to observational studies, clinical trials provide little support for the benefits of vitamin D supplementation for glucose homeostasis. Few foods naturally contain vitamin D. The flesh of fatty fish (such as trout, salmon, tuna, and mackerel) and fish liver oils are among the best sources [17,1]. A randomized controlled trial of vitamin D3 supplementation in African American women. Evidence Synthesis Number 118. Nutr Rev 2018;76:380-94. Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: pathogenesis and management. Includes a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, and oils. The analysis of 2015–2016 data also showed that 28% of all individuals aged 2 years and older in the United States took a dietary supplement containing vitamin D [40]. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95:1350-6. Aloia JF, Talwar SA, Pollack S, Yeh J. MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, et al. Participants were randomized to take either 30 mcg (1,200 IU)/day vitamin D3 or a placebo for 1 year. Nutrients 2018 Apr 16;10(4). [, Yao S, Kwan ML, Ergas IJ, Roh JM, Cheng T-YD, Hong C-C, et al. Overall, clinical trials show that vitamin D supplementation does not reduce CVD risk, even for people with low 25(OH)D status (below 20 nmol/L [12 ng/mL]) at baseline [93,124]. [, Jiang X, Dimou NL, Al-Dabhani K, Lewis SJ, Martin RM, Haycock PC, et al. JAMA 2018;319:1600-12. Elsevier, 2018. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2014;140:1465-77. Holick MF. Over time, bone density can decline, and osteoporosis can eventually develop [72]. The results showed that baseline serum 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with total number of CVD events (including myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and stroke) and mortality risk [120]. Nutrients 2018, 10, 59; doi:10.3390/nu10010059. A dose-response analysis found that each 20 nmol/L [8 ng/mL] increase in 25(OH)D was associated with a 9% lower risk of both all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Sunscreens with an SPF of 8 or more appear to block vitamin D-producing UV rays. All adults should consume recommended amounts of vitamin D and calcium from foods and supplements if needed. Despite increasing serum 25(OH)D levels to an average of more than 80 nmol/L (32 ng/ml), vitamin D supplementation did not affect lower-extremity power, strength, or lean mass. In adults and adolescents, vitamin D deficiency can lead to osteomalacia, in which existing bone is incompletely or defectively mineralized during the remodeling process, resulting in weak bones [47]. Further research is needed to determine whether vitamin D inadequacy increases cancer risk, whether greater exposure to the nutrient can prevent cancer, and whether some individuals could have an increased risk of cancer because of their vitamin D status over time. Vitamin D supplementation had no effect on the incidence rate of myocardial infarction, angina, heart failure, arrhythmia, arteriosclerosis, stroke, venous thrombosis, or death from CVD. Washington DC: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. For these reasons, vitamin D has been linked to heart health and risk of CVD. [. A meta-analysis of 3 randomized controlled trials in 1,273 men with prostate cancer found no significant differences in total mortality rates between those receiving vitamin D supplementation (from 10 mcg [400 IU]/day for 28 days to 45 mcg [1,800 IU] given in three doses total at 2-week intervals) and those receiving a placebo [116]. [, Drincic A, Fuller E, Heaney RP, Armas LAG. [, Shea MK, Fielding RA, Dawson-Hughes B. [, van Duijnhoven FJB, Jenab M, Hveem K, Siersema PD, Fedirko V, Duell EJ, et al. Orlistat In a subsequent investigation for 4.9 years after the study's end, women who had taken the vitamin D and calcium supplements (many of whom continued to take them) had an 18% lower risk of in situ (noninvasive) breast cancer [100]. They also help reduce fracture rates in institutionalized older people. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014;99:1132-41. [, Keum N, Lee DH, Greenwood DC, Manson JE, Giovannucci E. Vitamin D supplementation and total cancer incidence and mortality: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. A native son of Paterson, N.J., Congressman Bill Pascrell, Jr. has built a life of public service upon the principles he learned while growing up on the south side of the Silk City. Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals often contain added vitamin D, as do some brands of orange juice, yogurt, margarine, and other food products. 13-05183-EF-1. [, Taylor CL, Rosen CJ, Dwyer JT. Taken together, studies to date do not indicate that vitamin D with or without calcium supplementation reduces the incidence of cancer, but adequate or higher 25(OH)D levels might reduce cancer mortality rates. All quotes are in local exchange time. Below are brief descriptions of studies of vitamin D and its association with, or effect on, breast, colorectal, lung, pancreatic, and prostate cancers. Vitamin D helps regulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (and thereby blood pressure), vascular cell growth, and inflammatory and fibrotic pathways [118]. In fact, Black Americans might have a greater risk than White Americans of falls and fractures with daily vitamin D intakes of 50 mcg (2,000 IU) or more [14]. [, Jagannath VA, Filippini G, Di Pietrantonj C, Asokan GV, Robak EW, Whamond L, Robinson SA. [, Calvo MS, Whiting SJ, Barton CN. Most participants had minimal or mild depression, had a low mean baseline 25(OH) level of 33.8 nmol/L (13.5 ng/mL), and were not taking antidepressants. Endocrine Connections 2018;7:R294-303. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. Thiazide diuretics However, the evidence on the impact of vitamin D and calcium supplements on fractures in community-dwelling individuals is inconsistent. The vitamin D supplements were associated with serum 25(OH)D levels of 54 to 135 nmol/L (21.6 to 54 ng/mL). [, O'Brien KM, Sandler DP, Taylor JA, Weinberg CR. Again, the pattern was similar for the risk of inadequacy. Pediatr Clin North Am 2001;48:53-67. It stimulates insulin secretion via the vitamin D receptor on pancreatic beta cells and reduces peripheral insulin resistance through vitamin D receptors in the muscles and liver [143]. [, Caan B, Neuhouser M, Aragaki A, Lewis CB, Jackson R, LeBoff MS, et al. Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you're looking for. Association of glucocorticoid use and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): 2001-2006. Traditionally, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with rickets, a disease in which the bone tissue doesn't properly mineralize, leading to soft bones and skeletal deformities. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013;98:4845-51. For example, a meta-analysis included 34 observational studies that followed 180,667 participants (mean age greater than 50 years) for 1.3 to more than 32 years. about your interest in, questions about, or use of dietary supplements and what may be best for your overall health. However, 18% were at risk of inadequacy (levels of 30–49 nmol/L [12–19.6 ng/mL]), and 5% were at risk of deficiency (levels below 30 nmol/L [12 ng/mL]). Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): Maximum daily intake unlikely to cause adverse health effects. [, Salzer J, Hallmans G, Nystrom M, Stenlund H. Wadell G, Sundstrom P. Vitamin D as a protective factor in multiple sclerosis. No studies have examined whether such screening for vitamin D deficiency results in improved health outcomes [56]. This uneven distribution has led to speculation that lower vitamin D levels in people who have less sunlight exposure might predispose them to the disease [137]. [, Brondum-Jacobsen P, Benn M, Jensen GB, Nordestgaard BG. Why Is Dominion Energy (D) Down 8.7% Since Last Earnings Report? Many epidemiological and genetic studies have shown an association between MS and low 25(OH)D levels before and after the disease begins [137]. BMC Proceedings, 2018;12(Suppl 6):6. Laboratory and animal studies suggest that vitamin D might inhibit carcinogenesis and slow tumor progression by, for example, promoting cell differentiation and inhibiting metastasis. 2. Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and many other biological effects. An analysis of NHANES 2009–2016 data found that only 20.5% of breastfed infants and 31.1% of infants who were not breastfed ingested these recommended amounts of supplements [61]. [, Elder CJ, Bishop NJ. Pages 939-57 in Feldman D, Pike JW, Bouillon R, Giovannucci E, Goltzman D, Hewison M, eds. A high-level overview of Dominion Energy, Inc. (D) stock. Increasing incidence of nutritional rickets: A population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. [, Gallagher JC. Am J Cardiol 2007;99:903-5. Cancer Res 2006;66:10213-9. [, Song M, Lee IM, Manson JE, Buring JE, Dushkes R, Gordon D, et al. Importantly, not all observational studies found higher vitamin D status to be beneficial, and the studies varied considerably in study populations, baseline comorbidities, and measurement of vitamin D levels. People who are obese or have undergone gastric bypass surgery [. PMID: 31504098 [, Okereke OI, Reynolds III CF, Mischoulon D, Chang G, Vyas CM, Cook NR, et al. However, frequent use of tanning beds, which provide artificial UV radiation, can lead to 25(OH)D levels well above 375–500 nmol/L (150–200 ng/mL) [158-160]. However, normal-weight participants had greater reductions in cancer incidence and mortality rates than those who were overweight or obese. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Among the 198 participants who died (41 deaths were due to prostate cancer), 25(OH)D levels were not associated with risk of death from prostate cancer or any cause [114]. The Zacks Analyst Blog Highlights: NextEra Energy, Caterpillar, Micron Technology, Dominion Energy and Emerson Electric, Top Stock Reports for NextEra Energy, Caterpillar & Micron Technology, Investment, Focus on Renewables Continue to Aid Dominion (D). The USPSTF also reviewed the seven published studies on the effects of vitamin D supplementation (two of them also included calcium supplementation) on the risk of falls in community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older who did not have osteoporosis or vitamin D deficiency. Most people in the world meet at least some of their vitamin D needs through exposure to sunlight [1]. [, Kristal AR, Till C, Song X, Tangen CM, Goodman PJ, Neuhauser ML, et al. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans describes a healthy eating pattern as one that: This fact sheet by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) provides information that should not take the place of medical advice. Hazards of treating osteoporosis and hypertension concurrently with calcium, vitamin D, and distal diuretics. Bone health and osteoporosis Including food 25-hydroxyvitamin D in intake estimates may reduce the discrepancy between dietary and serum measures of vitamin D status. Among those most likely to have equivalent ability to write, speak or. Pike JW, Bouillon R, Macdonald IA, Zeisel SH, eds Inc quotes... Colmers in, Majumdar d&d 5e anubis, Davidson MB, Edwards al, Kumar J, A! Data delayed at least 75 nmol/L ( 30 ng/mL ) the management of multiple sclerosis: A systematic of! Either 30 mcg ( 1,200 IU ) /day vitamin D3 in raising wintertime 25-hydroxyvitamin... Improvement in depressive symptoms Ascherio A, Vacek PM, et al benefits and harms of supplementation A. 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