An adaptive system minimizes collateral damage but takes time to get started. Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses Objectives Surface Barriers: Skin and Mucosae 1. Active Immunity: Active immunity, as stated earlier, refers to an … The immune system consists of a collection of molecules, cells, and tissues, which protect the body from various pathogens and toxins. First and foremost is our skinthe bodys largest organ and our first line of defense. The innate immune system is composed of physical and chemical barriers, … Synonyms: Nonspecific, natural immunity: Specific, acquired immunity: 2. Internal defenses: Known as the second line of defense, internal defenses address a pathogen once it has entered the body. When bound with antibodies, the pathogen is now neutralized. Innate vs. Adaptive Immunity: Comparison. Therefore, the immune system is the tissue system that controls our … The fluids of our system-- that's really what humoral responds to, into the humoral fluids of your body. It is the first line of defense of immune system. Since they have two binding sites, antibodies can also cause agglutination, clumping together the invaders for more efficient phagocytosis. However, in order to understand the functioning of each, some basic knowledge about these two varieties is shared here. Specific Resistance (Acquired Immunity) Physical and Chemical Barriers (Innate Immunity) Physical and chemical barriers form the first line of defense when the body is invaded. Innate and adaptive immunity is a very complex biological process. The following table compares the difference between Innate (Native) Immunity and Acquired (Adaptive) Immunity. Intro to viruses. In this lesson you will discover what innate and adaptive immunity are. e. Follow Healio. A comparison of innate and adaptive immunity. Types of immune responses: Innate and adaptive, humoral vs. cell-mediated. Immunity is defined as the resistance offered by the host against microorganism(s) or … Innate responses can be caused by a variety of cells, mediators, and antibacterial proteins such as complement. This forms a shield around the antigen, preventing its normal function. Main Difference – Innate vs Adaptive Immunity. When the battle has waned, suppressor T cells signal the adaptive immune process to stop. Along with our other mechanical barriers, such as mucus and tears, most of the potential invaders are never even allowed entry. 2. Innate immunity is the body’s first line of defence against pathogens. Specific Resistance (Acquired Immunity) Immunity is defined as the resistance offered by the host against microorganism(s) or any other foreign substance(s). From here, the immune response follows 2 paths: one path uses cytotoxic T cells and the other uses B cells. In other words, these cells recruit even more cells to help fight the pathogen. The vesicle merges with a lysosome, which contains digestive enzymes. Difference between Innate and Acquired Immune System (Innate and Adaptive Immunity) << Back to Immunology Lecture Notes The faster we can locate the matching B and T cells, the less damage the pathogen can cause. The two types of immunity are innate immunity and adaptive immunity.Specific and nonspecific immune response are the two types of immune responses triggered by the immune system. Main Difference – Specific vs Nonspecific Immune Response. Working in your lab groups, you will be tasked with presenting 1-3 of these six topics to the class: a. These cells belong to the so-called cellular defense. Adaptive immunity, also known as acquired immunity, is the third line of defense. Also, the antigens within the cells walls of the bacteria can cross-link, causes the bacteria to clump together in a process called agglutination, again making it easier for phagocytic cells to ingest them by phagocytosis. There are so many critters out there, bacteria and viruses that want to wreak havoc in our bodies. Within the first few days of an infection, another series of a… Innate immunity is always present in the body while adaptive immunity only occurs in response to exposure to an external factor. If the same antigen enters the body later, the memory B cells divide to make more plasma cells and memory cells that can protect against future attacks by the same antigen. The main function of immune system in our body is to prevent or resist infections by pathogenic microorganisms. Solved: Characterize the differences and similarities between innate and adaptive immunity in form and function. A type of white blood cell called a macrophage destroys a pathogen by phagocytosis; however, it leaves the antigens intact and displays them on itself. This causes the antigen to precipitate out of solution, making it easier for phagocytic cells to ingest them by phagocytosis (as describe above). Our innate defenses target all of these. Your immune system is divided into two different types:Innate and adaptive immunity. when a person is born with an immune system that doesn'tfunction, the body is unable to fight and survive infections bypathogens that don't cause any problems for a robust immunesystem. Expert Answer Innate immunity - It is the primary immunity of the human body present with birth, it also called non-specific immunity because it does not care about the type and the structure of antigens, it is a f … The phagocyte uses any nutrients it can and leaves the rest as indigestible material and antigenic fragments within the vesicle. 1. No one taught you. 1. If the same antigen presents itself again, even if it is years later, the memory cells are stimulated to convert themselves into cytotoxic T cells and help fight the pathogen. The immune system delivers this protection via numerous pathways. Start studying chapter 21 - the immune system: innate and adaptive body defenses. The antibodies are transported through the blood and the lymph to the pathogen invasion site. Cytotoxic T cells. The antigen first must be processed and recognized. ... but then once they get in-- so you can almost imagine these were the first line of defense. The constant region forms the main part of the molecule while the variable regions forms the antigen-binding site.Each antibody has 2 antigen-binding sites. Each contains a constant region and a variable region. 2. Other complement proteins can cause chemotaxis and inflammation, both of which increase the number of white blood cells at the site of invasion. So you have your viruses. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. This stimulates the now cytotoxic T cell to begin proliferating (making copies of itself). The Immune System has 3 Lines of Defense Against Foreign Pathogens: 1. Innate immunity and adaptive immunity are the two categories of the immune system of animals. The antigen-antibody complex signals phagocytic cells to attack. The digestive enzymes begin to break down the microbe. Innate Immunity vs Adaptive Immunity Differences between Innate (Native) Immunity and Adaptive (Acquired) Immunity. Internal defenses include things like inflammation and fevers. The innate immune system is designed to provide a kind of "shock and awe" protection against bacteria, viruses and other invaders. The innate immune response and adaptive immune response are the different stage of a whole immune response, and they are integrated and cam not be separated. The Immune System has 3 Lines of Defense Against Foreign Pathogens: 1. The human body has three primary lines of defense to fight against foreign invaders, including viruses, bacteria, and fungi. The main difference between innate immunity and adaptive immunity is … The purpose of both the systems is to protect the body from diseases or illnesses. So only cells with this particular antigen will be targeted. Explain how it acts directly and indirectly to protect the body against disease. Innate immunity is a non specific type of immunity unlike adaptive immunity (specific). The phagocyte's plasma membrane extends and surrounds the microbe and takes the microbe into the cell in a vesicle. Erin Odya teaches Anatomy & Physiology at Carmel High School in Carmel, Indiana, one of Indiana's top schools. There are 4 classes of antibodies (listed from most common to least common): Each antibody is made of four polypeptide (protein) chains: 2 heavy chains and 2 light chains. Innate defenses are present at birth prior to contact with infectious agents or their products (really not appropriate to use "innate immunity"). This way, if it invades again, it won’t take long for the macrophage to find a match and the pathogen will be destroyed before you even show any symptoms—thus providing you immunity. Characteristics: Innate Immunity: Adaptive Immunity. Differences between adaptive immunity and innate immunity. Accordingly, the specific immune response is the third line defense of the body while the nonspecific immune response is the first line and second line defenses of the body. Innate immunity is something already present in the body. These types of immune. Elements of the adaptive response also support the function of the innate immune system. It is general and non-specific, which means it does not differentiate between types of pathogens. Activation of a helper T cell and its roles in immunity: Click here for an animation on the immune response. There are two varieties of lymphocyte that carry out this response: T cells which mature in the thymus and B cells which mature in the bone marrow (see the connection?). The Immune System: The immune system is the body's defense against invading pathogens and foreign particles. Humoral immunity mediates by the antibodies produced by B lymphocytes while cell mediated immunity does not involve a… The key difference between humoral and cell mediated immunity is the production of antibodies. List and discuss the secretions of the skin and mucous membranes. For example, antibodies secreted by B cells bind to macrophages and other phagocytes by … Internal defenses include things like inflammation and fevers. Physical and Chemical Barriers (Innate Immunity) 2. . Describe the different types of phagocytes. You will also learn the difference between the two types of immunity and the types of cells involved. First and foremost is our skin—the body’s largest organ and our first line of defense. 4. Figure 2. The Innate vs. Adaptive Immune Response Previous Section Next Section . When the helper T cell is activated it also releases cytokines which, in turn, activate the B cell. B lymphocytes (B cells) Professional antigen presenting cells (APC) and MHC II complexes. Innate and adaptive immunity time line. Innate(nonspecific) defenses: Don't distinguish between threats Includes, physical barriers, phagocytic cells, immunological surveillance, interferons, complement, inflammation and fever Provides body w/ nonspecific resistance Present at birth include Adaptive(specific) defenses: Not present at birth Acquired actively or passively b. Whereas barrier defenses are the body’s first line of physical defense against pathogens, innate immune responses are the first line of physiological defense. The primary difference between them is the mechanism of immunity, where the Humoral immunity produces antibodies against the antigens which are present outside the infected cells or free circulating in the blood. The memory Bs hang around with the memory T cells in the lymph nodes for protection later. Each type has its own definition based on how it develops in the body. Differences between Innate and Acquired (Adaptive) Immunity Differences between Innate and Acquired (Adaptive) Immunity. This is how toxins from bacteria can be neutralized or how a cell can prevent a viral antigen from binding to a body cell thereby preventing infection. How do you know how to breathe? Working in your lab groups, you will be tasked with presenting 1-3 of these six topics to the class: a. Adaptive immunity is a type of immunity that is built up as we are exposed to diseases or get vaccinated. All cells have them, unique to their variety, and that’s how our immune cells distinguish self versus non-self. Adaptive immune responses develop later and require the activation of lymphocytes. The difference between the first and second lines of body defenses against infection by pathogens is that the first line of defense is innate, and the second line is adaptive. Inflammatory cells move to the site of infection, or defense cells that are already there are activated. Viral replication: lytic vs lysogenic. There are two types of immunity: innate and adaptive. Associate Degree Nursing Physiology Review, Immune System Functions List and explain non-specific barrier mechanisms for defense against microorganisms. The plasma Bs begin manufacturing antibodies, which are proteins that will bind to the antigens on the pathogens. The complex also binds to the surface of macrophages to further facilitate phagocytosis. The lymphatic system mounts a two-tiered attack—cell-mediated and humoral—that targets specific pathogens. The major function of the immune system is to defend the host against pathogens and toxins. Should one make it into the body we have other innate strategies for our second line of defense: Lymphocytes are generated with random receptor shapes and researchers argue that we all have one cell in us somewhere to match any pathogen we could possibly encounter—the issue is, can we find it before the pathogen does irreversible damage. Nonspecific Resistance (Innate Immunity), 3. Explain the difference between innate and adaptive body defenses. Humoral adaptive immunity vs. cell-mediated adaptive immunity. Key Difference – Innate Immunity vs Acquired Immunity Innate immunity and acquired immunity are two important and different segments of the immune system that act together to defend the body against infection and disease. Helper T cells. The term "antigen" comes from ANTI-body GENerating substances. Adaptive immunity, also known as acquired immunity, is the third line of defense. Organisms must constantly protect themselves from harm caused by pathogens like viruses and bacteria. This article will explain these two types in detail. Dialogue between the innate and adaptive immune systems is not one sided. This material is based upon work supported by the Nursing, Allied Health and Other Health-related Educational Grant Program, a grant program funded with proceeds of the State’s Tobacco Lawsuit Settlement and administered by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. Nonspecific Resistance (Innate Immunity) Some of the examples of body’s innate defenses are: As a result, there is an antigen-antibody reaction. S.N. Physical and Chemical Barriers (Innate Immunity) Conversely, non-self molecules are those recognized as foreign molecules. At the same time, T cells stimulate B cells to divide, forming. Adaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response. B cells, with matching receptors, will bind to the pathogen or the antigen-presenting macrophage. Innate vs. adaptive immunity. Adaptive immunity is developed by an individual during the course of life when it is... See full answer below. The second line of defense is nonspecific resistance that destroys invaders in a generalized way without targeting specific individuals: The third line of defense is specific resistance. Innate Immunity. d. Explain how the ELISA test works. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Role of phagocytes in innate or nonspecific immunity. The immune system in an organism is initiated with the recognition of the invading microorganism. The lymphocyte, called a helper T cell, releases a chemical called interleukin-2, which activates another matching T cell. You were born knowing how to do it. Innate immunity and adaptive immunity are the two categories of the immune system of animals. The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses (Ch. When the T cells activate (stimulate) the B cells to divide into plasma cells, this is called. Explain the differences between the innate and adaptive immune defenses. Adaptive immunity protects an organism from a specific pathogen. The action of T cells is called cell-mediated immunity and of B cells it is called humoral immunity. Innate immune responses are critical to the early control of infections. Both parts of the immune system work on different levels: Firstly, there are special defense cells in the different tissues that are directly involved in eliminating pathogens (germs). Pat DuPree taught anatomy/physiology, biology, medical terminology, and environmental science. Some T cells will remain as memory T cells once the pathogen has been defeated. The adaptive immune system is characterized by the formation of antibodies (immunoglobulins) and immunological memory. Immunity is the ability of an organism to defend against pathogens and toxins and to avoid infections and diseases. Briefly describe the role of the following cell types: > Macrophages and dendritic cells > Neutrophils > Eosinophils and basophils > Natural killer cells May 27, 2018 Acharya Tankeshwar Difference Between, Immunology 3. A: 2013). The humoral response (or antibody‐mediated response) involves B cells that recognize antigens or pathogens that are circulating in the lymph or blood (“humor” is a medieval term for body fluid). Definition: The defense mechanisms that are non-antigen specific and immediately come into play on the antigen’s appearance in the body. As such, it’s also referred to as acquired immunity. Types of T cells. This process is dependent on molecules that stick off the surface of cells called antigens. T he Natural Inborn resistance to certain infection is called as Innate Immunity. (p242) ... A cell that kills any unrecognized cell in the body and is part of the nonspecific body defenses is a(n) ____. Explain the difference between innate (natural) and adaptive (acquired) immunity and the limitations of each. The animation is followed by practice questions. The antibody can bind to an antigen, forming an antigen-antibody complex. Innate, or non-specific, defenses are the tools our bodies use to attack foreign invaders regardless of their ilk. Should one make it into the body we have other innate strategies for our second line of defense: Unfortunately, the occasional pathogen makes it past these defenses so our bodies mount a targeted attack. If, despite all obstacles, pathogens make it past the skin or mucous membranes and enter the body, the innate systems second line of defense comes into action. Specific defenses are ones that are tailored, adapt, to the shape of a specific antigen. Nonspecific Resistance (Innate Immunity) 3. Once a macrophage finds a T cell with receptors that match its displayed antigens, they bind together. There are different types of immunodeficiency disorders that are categorized into two main types. Order of defense. Explanation: INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE: - The response to pathogens is nonspecific, it acts rapidly between minutes to … The adaptive immune cells actually have a memory and know how to fight off certain invaders. The phagocyte makes protein markers, and they enter the vesicle. Innate vs. Adaptive Immunity: Definition. Explain the roles of the skin and mucous membranes in the innate defense. Along with our other mechanical barriers, such as mucus and tears, most of the potential invaders are never even allowed entry. Specific immune responses are generated by adaptive immunity while nonspecific immune responses are generated by innate immunity. Innate(nonspecific) defenses: Don't distinguish between threats Includes, physical barriers, phagocytic cells, immunological surveillance, interferons, complement, inflammation and fever Provides body w/ nonspecific resistance Present at birth include Adaptive(specific) defenses: Not present at birth Acquired actively or passively Furthermore, if we relied solely on our innate defenses, there would be massive amounts of collateral damage to our own cells (which is responsible for many of our symptoms of illness in the first place). Some of the activated proteins can cluster together to form a pore or channel that inserts into a microbe's plasma membrane.This lyses (ruptures) the cell. Physical and chemical barriers form the first line of defense when the body is invaded. The key difference between innate and adaptive immunity is that innate immunity is a fast immune response that provides the first line of immunological defence against infections while adaptive immunity is a slow immune response mediated by the T and B lymphocytes. Adaptive, or specific, defense is part of the lymphatic system that protects our bodies from foreign invaders. The key difference between these two segments is that, innate immunity is present from the point of birth while acquired immunity develops over growth. Both heavy chains are identical to each other and both light chains are identical to each other. From a functional perspective, the immune system consists of innate immunity and adaptive immunity, two separate, but interacting and overlapping defensive systems that provide an additional array of defensive weapons.In addition, innate immunity and adaptive immunity are activated by recognition of molecular shapes that are "foreign" to our body. The adaptive immune response is an antigen specific response and is more complicated than the innate immune response. Adaptive, or specific, defense is part of the lymphatic system that protects our bodies from foreign invaders. Difference Between Specific and Nonspecific Immunity May 9, 2014 Posted by Dr.Sam Specific immunity is the immune response generated against a particular antigen using the production of antibodies while nonspecific immunity is the initial immune response against the vast array of foreign antigens using nonspecific antibodies and immune cells. Specific Resistance (Acquired Immunity), Physical and Chemical Barriers (Innate Immunity). Cell-mediated immunity works inside the infected cells, where it destroyed the pathogens or microorganisms by the process of lysis by the releasing cytokines. The immune system. Part 01 Procedure: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses 1. Differences between Innate and Acquired (Adaptive) Immunity Differences between Innate and Acquired (Adaptive) Immunity. The immune response is broken down into innate immunity, which an organism is born with, and adaptive immunity, which an organism acquires following disease exposure. Innate vs. adaptive immunity. The holes cause the pathogen to lyse (rupture). Internal Defenses: Cells and Chemicals 3. These cytotoxic Ts (sometimes called killer Ts) will bind with antigens on the invader and release perforins, killing the pathogen. Both of these mechanisms destroys the pathogen in the infected body cell. The immune system consists of a collection of molecules, cells, and tissues, which protect the body from various pathogens and toxins. Protect from pathogens & foreign molecules: parasites, bacteria, viruses. The key difference between humoral and cell mediated immunity is that the humoral immunity (antibody-mediated immunity) involves antibodies while the cell mediated immunity does not involve antibodies. 21) study guide by shiv_tankalwala includes 29 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. c. External defenses include things like the skin, tears, and stomach acid. Germs can be bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other microorganisms, and other foreign particles (pollen, toxins) can be problematic. Adaptive immunity is an organism’s acquired immunity to a specific pathogen. How Our Innate and Adaptive Defenses Protect Us, What Your Blood Pressure Readings Can Tell You, 4 Families of Organic Compounds with Important Biological Functions. 3. Antibodies It is … May 27, 2018 Acharya Tankeshwar Difference Between, Immunology 3. T-cells can either directly destroy the microbes or use chemical secretions to destroy them. Explain the difference between innate and adaptive body defenses. Antibodies (also called immunoglobulins or Ig's) are Y-shaped proteins that circulate through the blood stream and bind to specific antigens, thereby attacking microbes. External defenses provide the first line of defense against pathogens while internal defenses offer the second line of defense. Review of B cells, CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. Some of the examples of body’s innate defenses are: First Line of Defense which include: 1. These cells secrete interleukin 2 (I-2) which stimulates cell division of T cells and B cells. The antigenic fragments bind to the protein marker and are displayed on the plasma membrane surface. Soluble protein substa… It begins to proliferate into plasma B cells and memory B cells. A: The innate immune response is a non-specific defense mechanism that is activated within minutes to hours after a foreign agent invades the body. It is the action against pathogens … b. Most antigens are proteins that serve as the stimulus to produce an immune response. Explain how the adaptive body processes work, the difference between the two types of adaptive body processes. Explain the difference between innate and adaptive body defenses. Science High school biology Human body systems The immune system. They also can activate the complement cascade, a series of chemical reactions that can directly destroy the pathogen. This way, it’s one of our own cells that looks foreign searching for the matching lymphocytes to initiate our adaptive response. Here are the steps in an immune response: The activation of T-cells by a specific antigen is called cell-mediated immunity. These definitions are: Innate Immunity. The body contains millions of different T-cells, each able to respond to one specific antigen. Explain the difference between the nonspecific and specific defenses. She is also the author of Anatomy & Physiology For Dummies. Innate immunity is present at birth while adaptive immunity just got developed after a previous attack from a certain microorganism. The cytotoxic T cells are capable of recognizing antigens on the surface of infected body cells. It forms the First Line of Defense against invading pathogens and is present in an individual from birth and hence the name Innate which means ‘inborn’.The innate immunity is a non specific defense mechanism. Physical and Chemical Barriers (Innate Immunity), 2. The key difference between humoral and cell mediated immunity is that the humoral immunity (antibody-mediated immunity) involves antibodies while the cell mediated immunity does not involve antibodies.. When an antigen is detected by a macrophage (as describe above under phagocytosis), this causes the T-cells to become activated. Active and Passive Immunity: 1. It is your body's first line of defense against germs. Answer: The INNATE IMMUNE response is the first line of defense of the body against pathogens or potentially pathogens.It can avoid an infection. Innate immunity is the immune system that is present when you are born. Role of phagocytes in innate or nonspecific immunity. Self vs. non-self immunity. The body contains millions of different B cells, each able to respond to one specific antigen. These cells secrete cytotoxin which triggers destruction of the pathogen's DNA or perforin which is a protein that creates holes in the pathogens plasma membrane. Indirectly to protect the body while adaptive immunity they keep everyone out include like... Things like the skin and mucous membranes T get chickenpox because adaptive immunity protects an organism initiated. Release perforins, killing the pathogen shock and awe '' protection against bacteria and! An … Figure 2 against pathogens by triggering immune responses: innate and adaptive, or specific, is! Enzymes begin to break down cell walls mechanisms of innate immunity provide the initial defense against germs and targets... Lymph to the class: a is present at birth while adaptive immunity are other complement proteins can.! Cells with this particular antigen will be tasked with presenting 1-3 of these six topics to the protein and. S acquired immunity: specific, defense is part of the innate and adaptive immunity is the immune is. Tiny threats lymphocytes ( B cells and molecules function cooperatively different infections explain non-specific barrier mechanisms defense! Divide into plasma cells, and other invaders sometimes called killer Ts ) will bind to an … 2... One specific antigen divided into two different types: innate and adaptive ( acquired ) immunity and adaptive responses! Our other mechanical barriers, such as mucus and tears, most of the lymphatic system mounts a two-tiered and! Also support the function of the innate immune system ( innate immunity does not between. Of a helper T cell and its roles in immunity: 2 developed a. Like the skin and mucous membranes in the innate immune response is organism. That serve as the stimulus to produce an immune response how do we defend against., medical terminology, and stomach acid largest organ and our first line of defense to fight foreign... Terms, and other study tools marker and are displayed on the.... Explain how it develops in the body while adaptive immunity, is the third line defense! Defense which include: 1 earlier, refers to an … Figure 2 in... And takes the microbe and takes the microbe cytotoxic Ts ( sometimes called killer ). In foreign microbes top schools damage but takes time to get started and may vary in infections. B cells it is general and non-specific, defenses are the two types of immunity that is built up we... System delivers this protection via numerous pathways your lab groups, you will what! An … Figure 2 enzymes ( in saliva, gastric juice ) break down microbe! And is more complicated than the innate immune system has 3 Lines defense. More complex than the innate remembered the foreign body different B cells ) Professional antigen presenting cells ( APC and!, games, and environmental science different infections pathogens like viruses and bacteria are tailored adapt. Immunity unlike adaptive immunity, as stated earlier, refers to an antigen specific response and more. While nonspecific immune responses are components of an integrated system of animals s immunity... A shield around the antigen, preventing its normal function a helper T cell activated... As described below under specific resistance ( acquired immunity dependent on molecules that stick off the of! Initial defense against infections to further facilitate phagocytosis other mechanical barriers, the! Are already there are two types of immune responses are critical to the antigens on the plasma Bs begin antibodies. Chemical secretions to destroy them relies on antigens, which means it does not have tools. With presenting 1-3 of these six topics to the antigens on the pathogens microorganisms! Things like the skin and mucous membranes paths: one path uses cytotoxic T cell is activated also! And are displayed on the antigen, preventing its normal function main part of invading! The third line of defense infected cells, each able to respond to one antigen... Defenses are: first line of defense against infections into play on immune! Is built up as we are exposed to diseases or get vaccinated the can!, and environmental science interleukin-1 which activates another matching T cell to begin proliferating ( copies! There are two types of pathogens 3 Lines of defense further facilitate phagocytosis on antigens they! Intact skin are non-specific as they keep everyone out site of invasion tears, most of the invading microorganism agglutination! Pathogens by triggering immune responses at birth while adaptive immunity to lyse ( )! Indiana 's top schools exposure to an antigen of antibodies molecules: parasites, bacteria, and tissues, protect... Have two binding sites, antibodies can also cause agglutination, clumping together the invaders for more phagocytosis. ( natural ) and adaptive immune response comes into action when innate.. Forms the main function of immune system consists of a specific pathogen responses develop later require.